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    0 0

    As this page describes, syndaemon solves the problem of trying to type on a laptop and having the cursor jump somewhere else because it thinks you touched the touchpad:

    http://www.webupd8.org/2009/11/ubuntu-automatically-disable-touchpad.html

    0 0


    After reading the brain teaser here, I couldn't convince myself that the solution was correct:

    http://www.futilitycloset.com/2015/02/17/the-three-hats-game/



    It still seems impossible to me that any player should be able to do better than 50% at guessing the color of his own hat. So I wrote a C program to try out the strategy across 10000 games and report what it found. And indeed it does seem to work. I'd paste the code, but blogger sucks at code formatting. So here it is instead:


    https://gist.github.com/anonymous/b3e0a653097e61bec498


    0 0

    I need to capture some analog data.  My coworker has a National Instruments USB data acquisition module, but as far as I can tell, the drivers are all proprietary and focused on using Labview.

    So instead I used a fancy 9000-series Agilent Infiniium scope.  I plugged my laptop's ethernet cable into the scope, then used the Windows control panel on the scope to set its IPv4 address to 192.168.1.1.  I set my laptop to 192.168.1.2, and found that I could ping the scope.  So far so good.

    Back in the day, test equipment was controllable over a serial GPIB bus.  Today's fancy gear uses the same conventions over TCP/IP.  There's a confusing mess of acronyms like VXI-11 and VISA, and a bunch of half-baked libraries and crappy-looking system drivers that appear to be required to use them.  pyvisa looks nice, but wants a proprietary National Instruments driver distributed as a .iso(!).  Not my cup of tea.

    Then I ran across this MATLAB example that's basically just chatting with the device over TCP/IP. That led me to Agilent's Programmer's Reference guide for the 9000-series scopes.

    After fighting with the 1100-page manual for a few hours, I came up with the following settings that let me get samples at a specific rate like I would from an ADC.

    Note that you can also interactively talk to the scope using nc or telnet to port 5025 while you're experimenting.

     #!/usr/bin/python  

    # Using ethernet to talk to an Agilent Infiniium MSO9404A
    # See also the "Infiniium 9000A Programmer's Reference"

    import socket
    import sys

    sock = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
    sock.connect(("192.168.1.1", 5025))

    def cmd(s):
    sock.send(s + "\n")

    def resp():
    r = sock.recv(1048576)
    while not r.endswith("\n"):
    r += sock.recv(1048576)
    return r

    print "Querying scope"

    cmd("*IDN?")
    print "Scope identifies as: ", resp(),
    cmd("*RST")

    # This doesn't seem to affect the samples we receive
    cmd(":timebase:range 1E-6")
    cmd(":timebase:delay 0")

    cmd(":channel1:range 5")
    cmd(":channel1:offset 2.5")
    cmd(":channel1:input dc")

    cmd(":trigger:mode edge")
    cmd(":trigger:slope positive")
    cmd(":trigger:level chan1,2.5")

    cmd(":system:header off")

    cmd(":acquire:mode rtime") # Realtime mode; don't average multiple passes
    cmd(":acquire:complete 100")

    cmd(":waveform:source channel1")
    cmd(":waveform:format ascii")

    cmd(":acquire:count 1")
    cmd(":acquire:srate:auto off")
    cmd(":acquire:srate 4000")
    cmd(":acquire:points:auto off")
    cmd(":acquire:points 16")
    # This was on by default, and took me a long time to figure out why
    # I was getting ~16x the number of samples I requested.
    cmd(":acquire:interpolate off")

    cmd(":digitize channel1")
    # This should block until the capture is done, since we used :digitize
    cmd(":waveform:data?")

    sample_string = resp().rstrip().rstrip(",")
    ascii_samples = sample_string.split(",")

    samples = []
    for f in ascii_samples:
    try:
    samples.append(float(f))
    except:
    print "Couldn't convert:", f

    print "Got ", len(samples), " samples. Values 1-10:", samples[:10]



    0 0

    The App Engine admin panel will let you run GQL queries against your datastore, but it won't let you download the results as a CSV. So I wrote a [very] quick and [very] dirty handler that does, which also has the handy side effect that you can put your own access controls on it. That means you can give someone on your team read-only access to your datastore without also giving them access to the admin panel.

    If you're using db instead of ndb,  I believe the main thing to change is ndb.gql() to GqlQuery().

     # Very quick and dirty example of how to provide unfettered read  
    # access to your datastore with export to CSV. Be sure to add appropriate
    # access controls and watch out for security risks (like XSS)
    #
    # Don't forget to:
    # from google.appengine.ext import ndb
    # from google.appengine.ext.ndb import metadata
    class GqlPage(webapp2.RequestHandler):
    def get(self):
    limited = True
    row_limit = 1000
    # Tricky to distinguish absence of 'limit' checkbox when you
    # first hit the URL from when you submitted with an unchecked box
    if self.request.get('download', 'nope') != 'nope' and \
    self.request.get("limit", "nope") == "nope":
    limited = False

    query = self.request.get('query', "empty")

    is_csv = False
    if self.request.get('download') == 'Download':
    is_csv = True
    self.response.headers['Content-Type'] = "text/csv"
    else:
    self.response.write('<html><body>')
    self.response.write('<form action="/gql" method=POST>')
    self.response.write('<textarea name=query rows=10 cols=80 placeholder="select * from...">')
    if query != "empty":
    self.response.write(cgi.escape(query))
    self.response.write('</textarea><br>')
    self.response.write("<input type=submit name=download value=View>")
    self.response.write('<input id=foo type=submit name=download value=Download')
    self.response.write(' onclick="document.getElementById(\'results_div\').innerHTML=\'\';">')

    self.response.write("Limit response to " + str(row_limit) + " rows:")
    self.response.write("<input name=limit type=checkbox ")
    if limited:
    self.response.write("checked")
    self.response.write('><br></form>')

    self.response.write("Examples for available tables:<br>")
    for kind in metadata.get_kinds():
    self.response.write("select * from " + kind + "<br>")

    self.response.write('<br><div id="results_div"><pre>')

    if query != 'empty' and query != '':
    results = []
    if limited:
    results = ndb.gql(query).fetch(row_limit)
    else:
    results = ndb.gql(query).fetch()

    writer = csv.writer(self.response.out)

    row_count = 0
    first_row = True
    for row in results:
    row_dict = row.to_dict()
    keys = sorted(row_dict.keys())

    # Write column labels as first row
    if first_row:
    first_row = False
    self.response.write("#")
    writer.writerow(keys)

    values = []
    for k in keys:
    value = str(row_dict[k])
    if is_csv:
    values.append(value)
    else:
    values.append(cgi.escape(value))

    writer.writerow(values)

    row_count += 1
    if not is_csv and limited and row_count == row_limit:
    self.response.write("\n[Truncated at " + str(row_limit) + " lines]")

    if not is_csv:
    self.response.write('</pre></div>')
    self.response.write("</body></html>")

    def post(self):
    return self.get()


    0 0
  • 03/23/15--22:54: Steam Linux audio problems
  • No audio at all from steam games?  Try 'pavucontrol'.  It'll show you when games are trying to play audio and where they're playing it to. In the "configuration" tab I had to disable built-in audio and switch my "HDA NVidia" device to "Digital Surround 5.1 (HDMI) Output" from "Digital Stereo (HDMI) Output".

    0 0

    http://kpcbweb2.s3.amazonaws.com/files/90/Internet_Trends_2015.pdf

    Slides of interest to me:

    p.47: 6 of top 10 mobile apps are for messaging
    p.68: Social network use in 12-24 year olds: Instagram 32%,Twitter 24%, Facebook 14% (down from 35% in 2013)
    p.69: 78% of millennials spend >2h per day on smartphone
    p.70: 44% of millennials use smartphone camera at least once / day
    p.103: Americans receiving government benefits 50% in 2012 vs. 30% in 1983.
    p.110: #2 top work value for millenials is "Flexible Working Hours"
    p.113: Millenials seen as more narcissistic, open to change, creative than Gen X
    p.117: USA Smartphone penetration 64%
    p.132: 72% of NYC airbnb hosts depend on it for rent/mortgage
    p.163: 7% of Xaomi phone buyers (China) buy a Xaomi home product
    p.165: India starting to take off in Internet penetration (very cool chart)
    p.169: India #2 in % of internet traffic via mobile
    p.170: 41% of India e-commerce is via mobile



    0 0


    In some cars, the only way to add or check transmission fluid is to remove a hard-to-reach plug and add fluid until it starts pouring out the hole.  Since the hole is in the side of the transmission, there's no way to get a funnel into the hole.  You have to pump the fluid into the hole.

    Auto parts stores will sell you a pump, but I discovered that all I needed was a water bottle and some tubing.  Drill two holes in the cap for the tubes, fill the bottle about halfway with fluid and force air into the short tube.  I was worried about air leaking between the hole and the tubing, but it came out just right, nice and tight.  It can still work without a perfect seal but it'll require more air.

    This tubing was the perfect diameter to thread into the nozzle of the air gun on my compressor, but I think it would have worked just as well to simply blow into the short tube.  (I tried it with water just now and it seemed to work fine, but watch out for fumes and don't let any fluid come back up the short tube!)

    The tubing shown here is for the ice maker in my fridge.


    0 0
  • 09/02/15--15:35: libfann bugs
  • Looking for a general purpose neural network library, fann seemed reasonable.  Jury's still out, but I see a number of shortcomings:


    • I see people warning against using its builtin input/output scaling.  So make sure your training set (inputs and outputs) is all scaled to [0,1]

    • fann_create_train(...) shows up in the docs but doesn't appear to actually exist (version 2.1.0)

    • I see no examples of fann_create_train_from_callback(), and the docs are unclear, but it looks like it allocates the memory itself and then calls the callback num_data times.  So the num_data value that gets passed to the callback is 1..n, and the two pointers point directly to the elements to be filled in.
    • #include <doublefann.h> with gcc -lfann caused data corruption for me, because the internal library calls had fann_type = float while my main program had fann_type = double.  So either use #include <fann.h> with gcc -lfann  or  #include <doublefann.h> with gcc -ldoublefann!


    0 0

    I wanted a pin on my Arduino Due to switch between pulling down toward ground and turning off (going high impedance).

    I tried using pinMode(x, INPUT);, but there's a bug in the arduino libraries that sets the output high when I switch back to pinMode(x, OUTPUT).  That's no good!

    So I read up in the datasheet and found the register that enables open drain mode.  The pinout was also handy so I could see that pin 53 (according to Arduino) is port B, pin 14 according to the ARM chip.

    Here's the code snippet.

     // Sketch for Arduino Due that enables open drain mode for pin B14  
    void setup() {
    pinMode(53, OUTPUT);
    digitalWrite(53, 0);
    // Enable open drain mode on pin 14 of port B using the Multi-Driver Enable Register
    REG_PIOB_MDER = 1 << 14;
    // To switch it back to a normal output:
    // REG_PIOB_MDDR = 1 << 14;
    }
    void loop() {
    // Turn on B14 (should be about equivalent to digitalWrite(53, 1))
    REG_PIOB_SODR = 1 << 14;
    // Pause 1ms so it's easy to see on the scope
    delay(1);
    // Turn off B14
    REG_PIOB_CODR = 1 << 14;
    // Pause 2ms
    delay(2);
    }

    0 0

    Out of the box, the stock debian distro for my Beaglebone Black didn't recognize my Edimax USB wifi adapter.  But after plugging it into wired ethernet and doing an apt-get update ; apt-get dist-upgrade, it shows up just fine.

    I got it to associate with an access point once, but I got a lot of packet loss, and haven't gotten it to work since.  After an hour or two of fiddling, I'm just going to buy a different adapter.

    Update: Looks like "ifconfig wlan0 up" gets it to associate with an AP.  See http://credentiality2.blogspot.com/2015/09/getting-beaglebone-black-and-green-to.html

    0 0

    Wifi adapters: No luck out of the box with an Edimax EW-7811UN, Keebox W150NUIEEE, or dlink DWA-121.  The latter two were recognized by my Beaglebone Green, but wouldn't associate with my access point.  The Edimax showed up on my Beaglebone Black after an apt-get dist-upgrade, and associated once, but had tons of packet loss and never associated again.

    Error message from the Keebox and D-Link usb wifi adapters:

    # iwconfig wlan0 essid MyWifiName
    Error for wireless request "Set ESSID" (8B1A) :
        SET failed on device wlan0 ; Operation not permitted.

    Fix: 

    # ifconfig wlan0 up

    Then "iwconfig wlan0 essid MyWifiName" works.

    I tried this after connecting via ethernet and running apt-get update ; apt-get dist-upgrade, so I'm not sure if it'd work out of the box.



    0 0
  • 09/11/15--21:50: Beaglebone PRU GPIO example
  • Executive Summary

    If you're just trying to do ordinary GPIO on your beaglebone, this is not the page you're looking for.

    This is about how to use certain GPIO pins on the beaglebone using the two embedded 200MHz PRU microcontrollers using their super-fast Enhanced GPIO mode.  The PRUs can also be used to access other GPIO pins, but not as quickly, and I don't cover that here.

    Reading all the way through chapters 6 and 13 of Exploring BeagleBone was the best resource I found for understanding all this, but at the end of the day, here's what I had to do:

    1. sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
    2. Create a device tree overlay, compile it, reboot, and enable it
    3. Assemble my PRU code (just 3 instructions!)
    4. Compile a tiny C program to send the code to the PRU.

    One challenge is that most of the info out there is from 2013 or 2014, when you had to install PRUSS manually.  Fortunately, that stuff all came by default on my BeagleBone Green and BeagleBone Black.  So you don't have to worry about installing am335x_pru_package to get pasm and libprussdrv!

    Turns out programming the PRU is the easy part.  The hard part is sorting out all the different ways of doing GPIO and getting the right mode enabled in the device tree.

    Choosing the Right Pins (it's harder than you think)

    This table shows which GPIO pins you can access from the PRUs using Enhanced GPIO (EGP).  The "BB Header" column shows you the physical header pin on the BeagleBone.  The R30 and R31 columns show you which pins you'll be writing or reading when you access that bit on those registers from the PRU0 or PRU1 microcontrollers.

    But it's not the whole story -- if you  have a BeagleBone Black, all of the pins for PRU1 are used by the HDMI or onboard flash (emmc2).  So to use those pins, you have to disable HDMI or onboard flash (and thereafter boot from a microSD card) first, which requires editing the uEnv.txt file and rebooting.  (BeagleBone Green doesn't come with HDMI, freeing up those pins by default.)

    These tables for headers P8 and P9 from Exploring BeagleBone highlight those reserved pins in red, and then show in the rightmost column that they're reserved for HDMI or emmc2.

    Note from the first table that even though each PRU supports 16 EGP pins, the BeagleBone headers don't expose them all.  So don't expect to do fast 16-bit parallel I/O from a PRU on your BeagleBone.

    Finally, it looks like pins 41 and 42 on P9 are yet another special case, and are overloaded with other GPIO pins somehow, and so you have to set those pins as inputs before using them from the PRU.  (I didn't try).

    Let's avoid all those special cases and pick two pins that aren't already spoken for.  We'll use pin 11 on header P8 for output.  The tables show us that P8_11 correspond to PRU 0, register 30, bit 15.  In the PRUs, R30 is a "magic" register, and writing to it lets us set the state of output pins.

    Let's also pick a pin for input, pin 16 on P8.  There the tables show us that P8_16 corresponds to PRU 0, register 31 bit 14.  R31 is the other "magic" PRU register, and reading from it reads input pins.

    Get the Pin Configuration Right!

    This is really easy to screw up.  The first thing we need to find is the multiplexer mode, which determines whether the pin will be hooked up to the PRU, HDMI port, etc.

    The modes are nicely laid out as 7 columns in the P8 and P9 tables from the book.  At first you might think that Mode6 is "PRU input" mode, since there are lots of green cells like "pru_pruX_r31_XX", and r31 is the magic PRU input register.  But P8_11 and P8_12 break this rule.  So it's better to assume the pinmux modes were assigned at random, and check carefully in the tables.  I'm glad I printed them out, since I've had to stare at them a lot.

    We want P8_11 to be our output pin, because the P8 table doesn't list it as colliding with anything important, and because it's highlighted in green, showing that it can work with PRU EGP.  Its name in that cell is pr1_pru0_pru_r30_15.  "pru0" tells us it's for PRU0.  "r30" tells us it can be used as an output, since r30 is the magic output register.  And it's in the "mode6" column, so we know we need to set that pin to mode 6 if we want to use it from the PRU0's register 30.

    We can also get that from the elinux.org table, since the "Pinmux Mode" to the right of the R30(output) column is Mode_6.

    For our input pin P8_16, when we follow the tables we see that it's also mode 6 in this case.

    But as explained in the Exploring BeagleBone book (and less clearly in table 9-60 of the TRM), we're not done yet!  There are 4 other settings that can apply to each pin:

    Bits 0..2 are the multiplexer mode (these two pins are both 6)
    Bit 3 enables (0) or disables (1) the internal pullup/pulldown resistor
    Bit 4 is 0 for pulldown, 1 for pullup
    Bit 5 is 0 to disable input, 1 to enable input.
    Bit 6 is 1 if you want slow rise/fall times (for long i2c buses)

    So for our output pin, P8_11, our configuration value is just 0x6, since none of the other bits are set.

    But for our input pin P8_16, we need to turn on bit 5, so the value is 0x26  (10000 binary ORed with 110 binary).


    Device Tree Overlays (there is NO escape!)

    I looked all over, and there doesn't seem to be a way around creating and editing device tree overlays.

    Now that we've picked what pins we want to use with the PRU, we have to use the device tree to enable the PRUs and put those pins into the right mode.

    Here's a DTS file that sets up P8_11 for output via PRU EGP, and P8_16 for input via PRU EGP.  It's much shorter than it looks because I added a lot of comments:

     // This DTS overlay sets up one input and one output pin for use by  
    // PRU0 via its Enhanced GPIO mode, which will let us access those pins
    // by writing to R30 bit 15 or reading from R31 bit 14.

    // Save this file wherever you want (but I recommend /lib/firmware), as
    // "PRU-GPIO-EXAMPLE-00A0.dts".

    // Compile with:
    // dtc -O dtb -I dts -o /lib/firmware/PRU-GPIO-EXAMPLE-00A0.dtbo -b 0 -@ PRU-GPIO-EXAMPLE-00A0.dts

    // You'll have to reboot, after which you can do this as root to activate it:
    // echo PRU-GPIO-EXAMPLE > /sys/devices/bone_capemgr.?/slots

    /dts-v1/;
    /plugin/;

    / {
    // This determines which boards can use this DTS overlay
    compatible = "ti,beaglebone", "ti,beaglebone-green", "ti,beaglebone-black";

    // I think part-number is supposed to correspond with the filename,
    // so we'd save this as "PRU-GPIO-EXAMPLE-00A0.dts".
    part-number = "PRU-GPIO-EXAMPLE";

    // This always seems to be 00A0, and all the .dtbo files in /lib/firmware
    // seem to be named foo-00A0.dtbo, but then are loaded without that suffix. So
    // for foo-00A0.dtbo we'd do 'echo foo > /sys/devices/bone_capemgr.?/slots'
    version = "00A0";

    // List the pins and resources we'll be using. This table:
    // http://elinux.org/Ti_AM33XX_PRUSSv2#Beaglebone_PRU_connections_and_modes
    // shows which pins can be used with PRU0 and PRU1 for input and output via
    // registers R31 and R30.
    // Our output pin, P8_11, corresponds to PRU 0, register 30, bit 15
    // Our input pin, P8_16, corresponds to PRU 0, register 31, bit 14
    //
    // Beware: Many other PRU EGP pins are reserved by HDMI or onboard flash, which
    // would need to be disabled first by editing uEnv.txt and rebooting.
    exclusive-use =
    "P8.11", "P8.16", "pru0";

    fragment@0 {
    target = <&am33xx_pinmux>;
    __overlay__ {
    example_pins: pinmux_pru_pru_pins {

    // The offset and mode for pins P8_11 and P8_16 also come from the table linked above.
    //
    // That table gives offset 0x34 for P8_11, and 0x38 for P8_16.
    // It also shows us we want pinmux mode 6 for P8_11 in output mode,
    // and again pinmux mode 6 for P8_16 in input mode.
    //
    // Table 9-60 in the TRM: http://www.ti.com/lit/ug/spruh73l/spruh73l.pdf
    // helps us calculate the rest of the configuration value.
    //
    // For P8_11, the other fields are all 0, so the value is just 0x06.
    //
    // For P8_16, we want it to be an input, so we also set bit 5, yielding
    // a value of 0x26. We could also set bits 3 and 4 to enable a pullup
    // or pulldown.
    pinctrl-single,pins = <
    0x34 0x06
    0x38 0x26
    >;
    };
    };
    };

    // This enables the PRU and assigns the GPIO pins to it for use in EGP mode.
    fragment@1 {
    target = <&pruss>;
    __overlay__ {
    status = "okay";
    pinctrl-names = "default";
    pinctrl-0 = <&example_pins>;
    };
    };
    };


    After saving that to /lib/firmware/PRU-GPIO-EXAMPLE-00A0.dts, I compiled it:

     root@beaglebone:/lib/firmware# dtc -O dtb -I dts -o /lib/firmware/PRU-GPIO-EXAMPLE-00A0.dtbo -b 0 -@ PRU-GPIO-EXAMPLE-00A0.dts  

    And then I had to reboot before the system would let me load it.  The "PRU-GPIO-EXAMPLE" and the  "L" in "P-O-L" shows me that the overlay loaded successfully.

     root@beaglebone:/lib/firmware# echo PRU-GPIO-EXAMPLE > /sys/devices/bone_capemgr.?/slots  
    root@beaglebone:/lib/firmware# cat /sys/devices/bone_capemgr.?/slots
    0: 54:PF---
    1: 55:PF---
    2: 56:PF---
    3: 57:PF---
    4: ff:P-O-L Bone-LT-eMMC-2G,00A0,Texas Instrument,BB-BONE-EMMC-2G
    5: ff:P-O-L Override Board Name,00A0,Override Manuf,BB-UART2
    6: ff:P-O-L Override Board Name,00A0,Override Manuf,PRU-GPIO-EXAMPLE


    Writing Code (finally!)

    Now that the hard part's done, we can write some assembly code for the PRU and some C code to load it.  Here's the C code that runs on the main CPU and lets us load an arbitrary PRU .bin file into PRU 0:

     // Loads an arbitrary .bin file into PRU0 and waits for it to signal  
    // that it has finished.
    //
    // Pass in the filename of the .bin file on the command line, eg:
    // $ ./pru_loader foo.bin
    //
    // Compile with:
    // gcc -o pru_loader pru_loader.c -lprussdrv

    #include <stdio.h>
    #include <prussdrv.h>
    #include <pruss_intc_mapping.h>

    int main(int argc, char **argv) {
    if (argc != 2) {
    printf("Usage: %s pru_code.bin\n", argv[0]);
    return 1;
    }

    // If this segfaults, make sure you're executing as root.
    prussdrv_init();
    if (prussdrv_open(PRU_EVTOUT_0) == -1) {
    printf("prussdrv_open() failed\n");
    return 1;
    }

    tpruss_intc_initdata pruss_intc_initdata = PRUSS_INTC_INITDATA;
    prussdrv_pruintc_init(&pruss_intc_initdata);

    // Change to 1 to use PRU1
    int which_pru = 0;
    printf("Executing program and waiting for termination\n");
    prussdrv_exec_program(which_pru, argv[1]);

    // Wait for the PRU to let us know it's done
    prussdrv_pru_wait_event(PRU_EVTOUT_0);
    printf("All done\n");

    prussdrv_pru_disable(which_pru);
    prussdrv_exit();

    return 0;
    }


    And here, finally, is the assembly code that runs on the PRU.  "set r30, r30, 15" is all it takes to turn on our pin, and "clr r30, r30, 15" is all it takes to shut it off!

    Here's a lovely PRU instruction set quick reference, also from the book.  Print it out too.

     // Demonstrates using Enhanced GPIO (EGP), the fast way to  
    // do GPIO on certain pins with a PRU.
    //
    // Writing to r30 with PRU0 or PRU1 sets the pins given in this table:
    // http://elinux.org/Ti_AM33XX_PRUSSv2#Beaglebone_PRU_connections_and_modes
    //
    // But only if the Pinmux Mode has been set correctly with a device
    // tree overlay!
    //
    // Assemble with:
    // pasm -b pru_egp_output.p

    // Boilerplate
    .origin 0
    .entrypoint TOP

    TOP:
    // Writing bit 15 in the magic PRU GPIO output register
    // PRU0, register 30, bit 15 turns on pin 11 on BeagleBone
    // header P8.
    set r30, r30, 15

    // Uncomment to turn the pin off instead.
    //clr r30, r30, 15

    // Interrupt the host so it knows we're done
    mov r31.b0, 19 + 16

    // Don't forget to halt or the PRU will keep executing and probably
    // require rebooting the system before it'll work again!
    halt


    I assembled with "pasm -b pru_egp_output.p", loaded it with "sudo ./pru_egp_loader pru_egp_output.bin", and verified with my voltmeter that P8_11 showed 3.3v.  Then I uncommented the clr, reassembled, re-ran and verified that it dropped to 0.  Success!

    Now we're ready for the big leagues, 5 whole instructions to copy the value of the input pin to the output pin:


     // Demonstrates using Enhanced GPIO (EGP), the fast way to  
    // do GPIO on certain pins with a PRU.
    //
    // Writing to r30 or reading from r31 with PRU0 or PRU1 sets or reads the pins
    // given in this table:
    // http://elinux.org/Ti_AM33XX_PRUSSv2#Beaglebone_PRU_connections_and_modes
    //
    // But only if the Pinmux Mode has been set correctly with a device
    // tree overlay!
    //
    // Assemble with:
    // pasm -b pru_egp_io.p

    // Boilerplate
    .origin 0
    .entrypoint TOP

    TOP:
    // Reading bit 14 in the magic PRU GPIO input register 31
    // bit 14 for PRU0 reads pin 16 on BeagleBone header P8.
    // If the input bit is high, set the output bit high, and vice versa.
    QBBS HIGH, r31, 14
    QBBC LOW, r31, 14

    HIGH:
    // Writing bit 15 in the magic PRU GPIO output register
    // register 30, bit 15 for PRU0 turns on pin 11 on BeagleBone
    // header P8.
    set r30, r30, 15
    QBA DONE

    LOW:
    clr r30, r30, 15

    DONE:
    // Interrupt the host so it knows we're done
    mov r31.b0, 19 + 16

    // Don't forget to halt or the PRU will keep executing and probably
    // require rebooting the system before it'll work again!
    halt


    I tested it by installing a jumper from P9_01 (GND) or P9_03 (DC_3.3V) to P8_16.  Be sure not to connect to P9_05 or P9_06 though, since those are at 5V and could blow up your board!

    Where to now?

    If you're still with me, you probably have something fancier in mind than just turning a pin on or off.  Even though am335x_pru_package came installed on my BBB, the examples weren't there.  You can find them here on github: https://github.com/beagleboard/am335x_pru_package/tree/master/pru_sw/example_apps

    In particular, PRU_memAccessPRUDataRam was super helpful.  It doesn't use any GPIO pins, so it only requires that the PRUs are enabled (which you get if you use my overlay above).  I was trying to get some assembly code to work, and couldn't get any signal back from the PRU to know if it wasn't working or if it just couldn't toggle any GPIO pins.  I had deleted that pesky "interrupt the host" instruction at the end of my listing above, so I was running the code totally blind.  When I discovered that PRU_memAccessPRUDataRam worked fine on a clean boot, but would no longer work after running my code, I quickly realized that I had forgotten to put a HALT instruction at the end of my code.

    One other thing to explore is the new C compiler for the PRUs, PRUSS-C.  It's also installed by default on my beaglebones.  It looks pretty neat, but I haven't managed to get the code onto a PRU yet.  Something to do with .cmd scripts for hexpru, I think.

    Finally, TI also has a GUI development suite for their processors.  I was tempted to try it, but they make you create a login to myTI first, and I'd rather use command line tools anyway.

    0 0

    Here's some C and PRU assembly code I wrote to see how fast the PRU can write to system (DDR) memory.


     // Loads a .bin file into a BeagleBone PRU and then interacts with it  
    // in shared PRU memory and (system-wide) DDR memory.
    //
    // Pass in the filename of the .bin file on the command line, eg:
    // $ ./pru_loader foo.bin
    //
    // Compile with:
    // gcc -std=gnu99 -o pru_loader pru_loader.c -lprussdrv

    #include <unistd.h>
    #include <stdio.h>
    #include <inttypes.h>
    #include <prussdrv.h>
    #include <pruss_intc_mapping.h>

    int main(int argc, char **argv) {
    if (argc != 2) {
    printf("Usage: %s pru_code.bin\n", argv[0]);
    return 1;
    }

    // If this segfaults, make sure you're executing as root.
    prussdrv_init();
    if (prussdrv_open(PRU_EVTOUT_0) == -1) {
    printf("prussdrv_open() failed\n");
    return 1;
    }

    tpruss_intc_initdata pruss_intc_initdata = PRUSS_INTC_INITDATA;
    prussdrv_pruintc_init(&pruss_intc_initdata);

    // Pointer into the 8KB of shared PRU DRAM
    volatile void *shared_memory_void = NULL;
    // Useful if we're storing data there in 4-byte chunks
    volatile uint32_t *shared_memory = NULL;
    prussdrv_map_prumem(PRUSS0_SHARED_DATARAM, (void **) &shared_memory_void);
    shared_memory = (uint32_t *) shared_memory_void;

    // Pointer into the DDR RAM mapped by the uio_pruss kernel module.
    volatile void *shared_ddr = NULL;
    prussdrv_map_extmem((void **) &shared_ddr);
    unsigned int shared_ddr_len = prussdrv_extmem_size();
    unsigned int physical_address = prussdrv_get_phys_addr((void *) shared_ddr);

    printf("%u bytes of shared DDR available.\n Physical (PRU-side) address:%x\n",
    shared_ddr_len, physical_address);
    printf("Virtual (linux-side) address: %p\n\n", shared_ddr);

    // We'll use the first 8 bytes of PRU memory to tell it where the
    // shared segment of system memory is.
    shared_memory[0] = physical_address;
    shared_memory[1] = shared_ddr_len;

    // Change to 0 to use PRU0
    int which_pru = 1;
    prussdrv_exec_program(which_pru, argv[1]);

    for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
    sleep(1);
    // See if it's successfully writing the physical address of each word at
    // the (virtual, from our viewpoint) address
    printf("DDR[%d] is: %p / 0x%x\n", i, ((unsigned int *)shared_ddr) + i,
    ((unsigned int *) shared_ddr)[i]);

    int passes = shared_memory[0];
    int bytes_written = passes * shared_ddr_len;
    printf("Bytes written: %d\n", bytes_written);
    }

    // Wait for the PRU to let us know it's done
    prussdrv_pru_wait_event(PRU_EVTOUT_0);
    printf("All done\n");

    prussdrv_pru_disable(which_pru);
    prussdrv_exit();

    return 0;
    }


    And here's the assembly:
     .origin 0  
    .entrypoint TOP

    #define DDR r29
    #define DDR_SIZE r28
    #define SHARED_RAM r27

    #define SHARED_RAM_ADDRESS 0x10000

    TOP:
    // Enable OCP master ports in SYSCFG register
    LBCO r0, C4, 4, 4
    CLR r0, r0, 4
    SBCO r0, C4, 4, 4

    MOV SHARED_RAM, SHARED_RAM_ADDRESS

    // From shared RAM, grab the address of the shared DDR segment
    LBBO DDR, SHARED_RAM, 0, 4
    // And the size of the segment from SHARED_RAM + 4
    LBBO DDR_SIZE, SHARED_RAM, 4, 4

    // BIGLOOP is one pass overwriting the shared DDR memory segment
    mov r12, 0
    mov r14, 10000
    BIGLOOP:

    // Start at the beginning of the segment
    MOV r10, DDR
    ADD r11, DDR, DDR_SIZE

    // Tight loop writing the physical address of each word into that word
    LOOP0:
    SBBO r10, r10, 0, 4
    ADD r10, r10, 4
    // XXX: This means r10 < r11, opposite what I expected!
    QBLT LOOP0, r11, r10

    ADD r12, r12, 1
    SBBO r12, SHARED_RAM, 0, 4
    QBGT BIGLOOP, r12, r14

    // Interrupt the host so it knows we're done
    MOV r31.b0, 19 + 16

    // Don't forget to halt!
    HALT


    Here's the output I get, about 200MB/sec:

     262144 bytes of shared DDR available.  
    Physical (PRU-side) address:9e6c0000
    Virtual (linux-side) address: 0xb6d78000

    DDR[0] is: 0xb6d78000 / 0x9e6c0000
    Bytes written: 200540160
    DDR[1] is: 0xb6d78004 / 0x9e6c0004
    Bytes written: 401342464
    DDR[2] is: 0xb6d78008 / 0x9e6c0008
    Bytes written: 601882624
    DDR[3] is: 0xb6d7800c / 0x9e6c000c
    Bytes written: 802160640
    DDR[4] is: 0xb6d78010 / 0x9e6c0010
    Bytes written: 1002176512
    DDR[5] is: 0xb6d78014 / 0x9e6c0014
    Bytes written: 1202454528
    DDR[6] is: 0xb6d78018 / 0x9e6c0018
    Bytes written: 1402470400
    DDR[7] is: 0xb6d7801c / 0x9e6c001c
    Bytes written: 1602748416
    DDR[8] is: 0xb6d78020 / 0x9e6c0020
    Bytes written: 1802764288
    DDR[9] is: 0xb6d78024 / 0x9e6c0024
    Bytes written: 2003042304
    All done



    If I crank up the number of bytes written by SBBO from 4 to 8 (in the SBBO and ADD after LOOP0), then I think it ends up writing the contents of r10 and r11 into memory, and I get 320MB/sec.  If I crank it up to 16 bytes per write, I get 450MB/sec.

    So the PRU really can write very quickly to system RAM.

    0 0

    Using a PWM channel to get square waves (don't care about duty cycle) from my BeagleBone, looks like I can get up to 50MHz with:

    root@beaglebone:~# echo 10 > /sys/devices/ocp.3/pwm_test_P9_14.12/period
    root@beaglebone:~# echo 5 > /sys/devices/ocp.3/pwm_test_P9_14.12/duty



    0 0

    I picked up some printer heads for an Okidata LED printer and checked them out under the microscope.  

    This ebay auction shows what the complete head looks like.  An LED printer is basically a laser printer, except that instead of scanning a laser beam across the page to make the toner stick to the page, an array of LEDs does the work.

    Here's the lens assembly and LED array removed from the housing:


    The lens assembly has two staggered rows of lenslets.  The head has some sort of tilt arrangement that I suspect they use to vibrate the lens assembly back and forth and then power the LEDs when the lenses are in the desired position.  (But don't quote me on that).


    Putting the LED array under the microscope, we can see where the PCB is wire bonded to the LED driver circuitry.  Normally wirebonding is used inside a chip to go from the wafer to the pins, and then the whole chip is sealed up in plastic or ceramic.  But here the tiny gold wires are exposed, making them very easy to damage (which I did when removing the board from the head).



    Below is a closeup.  The wires at the top are all going to a common trace on the upper part of the PCB.  The wires at the bottom are address/control lines going to the green/purple wafers.  At first I thought this was the LED array, but it's just the control circuitry.  That wafer is then wirebonded to the actual LED array, which just looks like a black line with dark gray squares between the top and middle rows of wires.

    So you can see they had to run a wire for each and every LED in the array, and they're too densely packed to be able to run the wires to pads on the PCB, so instead they go wafer to wafer.  Then they just need to run control lines out to the PCB so it can tell the control wafer which LEDs to turn on.








    0 0

    Looks like I get about 4.3MB/sec when writing to the onboard flash on my BeagleBone Black, and about 7.1MB/sec when writing to a 64GB Sandisk Ultra 64GB microSD card.

    On BeagleBone Green, I get 9.4MB/s to onboard flash, and 6.8MB/s to the same SanDisk microSD card.

    I used this command to test:
    $ time ( dd of=foo if=/dev/zero bs=1M count=100 ; sync )


    Ignored dd's report, and divided 100 / elapsed time as reported by the time command.

    0 0

    USB Host (big type A jack): 20MB/s writing to a Seagate USB3 2TB portable (spinning) hard disk (required plugging a 5V 4A power supply into the BeagleBone Black's power jack).  On BeagleBone Green, I got corruption with the Seagate disk, even when I powered the board from a bench supply.  With this Samsung 64GB USB flash drive I get 14-18MB/s write on both BeagleBone Green and Black.

    Disk: 4.3MB/s writing to onboard flash, and 7.1MB/s to a SanDisk Ultra 64GB microSD card.  On BeagleBone Green, I get 9.4MB/s to onboard flash, and 6.8MB/s to the same SanDisk microSD card.

    Network: Using netcat with the USB ethernet interface, I get 7.6MB/s upstream (to my laptop).  With the 100baseT jack I get 11.2MB/s upstream.  If I use ssh with its default cipher, I get about 10MB/s, but that goes back up to 11.1MB/s if I use "-c arcfour".

    Compression: gzip -1 gives me 4.1MB/s on text generated by "cat /dev/urandom data | od -x".  I tried lz4 as well and it was almost exactly the same speed.


    0 0

    My beaglebone black wasn't recognizing my wifi adapter.  apt-get update ; apt-get dist-upgrade didn't help, and I noticed that it wasn't upgrading the kernel.

    Looks like the way to get kernel updates is to use /opt/scripts/tools/update_kernel.sh.  When I first tried it, I got errors like "The certificate of `rcn-ee.net' is not trusted".

    So the first step was to "git pull" down the latest version of the update_kernel.sh script, then run it.  Upon reboot, it recognized the wifi adapter.

    Also note that beaglebone doesn't always do USB hotplug right, so I made sure to reboot after plugging in the adapter.

    Also, even after updating the kernel, my Edimax and D-Link adapters show up but won't associate to an access point.  The Keebox W150NU seems to be working well, though.

    Update: Even with the W150NU, I had trouble connecting to public networks.  I noticed this in dmesg: "deauthenticating from by local choice (reason=3)", which led me to a page recommending that I kill wpa_supplicant, and that fixed it.

    0 0

    Warning: it's easy to screw this stuff up and lose the ability to ssh into the beaglebone when you reboot.  Usually it was as simple as manually setting the IP address on my laptop, but you may not be so lucky.  You may not want to attempt this if you don't have a good handle on TCP/IP networking.

    My Keebox W150NU seems to be doing a good job with a BeagleBone black as a wifi access point.  (I get about 3MB/s beaglebone -> laptop).  Beware that lots of other adapters (eg., Edimax and D-Link) work really poorly or not at all with the BeagleBone.

    With a newer BeagleBone green, the W150NU was recognized out of the box, but on an older BBB with another adapter I had to update the kernel first:

    Update kernel if your wifi adapter isn't detected (or if you just want to be up to date):
    First I did 'sudo apt-get update ; sudo apt-get dist-upgrade'
    Then I upgraded the kernel so it'd recognize the usb wifi adapter:
    'cd /opt/scripts/tools ; git pull ; ./update_kernel.sh' 
    On BeagleBone Green they tweaked a file to say "BBG" instead of "BBB", so I had to revert it with: 'cd /opt/scripts ; git checkout tools/eMMC/init-eMMC-flasher-v3.sh' then 'git pull' again before I could run the 'update_kernel.sh' script.
    Rebooting, the W150NU appeared as wifi2.

    Next, I followed the instructions here to set up hostapd.  

    First, 'sudo apt-get install dnsmasq hostapd'

    Here's my /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf (beware leading and trailing spaces, or hostapd.conf will refuse to start):

    ### Wireless network name ###
    interface=wlan0
    #
    ### Set your bridge name ###
    #bridge=br0

    #driver
    driver=nl80211

    country_code=US

    ssid=beaglebone

    channel=7

    hw_mode=g

    # # Static WPA2 key configuration
    # #1=wpa1, 2=wpa2, 3=both
    wpa=2

    wpa_passphrase=yourpassword

    ## Key management algorithms ##
    wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
    #
    ## Set cipher suites (encryption algorithms) ##
    ## TKIP = Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
    ## CCMP = AES in Counter mode with CBC-MAC
    wpa_pairwise=TKIP
    #rsn_pairwise=CCMP
    #
    ## Shared Key Authentication ##
    auth_algs=1
    ## Accept all MAC address ###
    macaddr_acl=0
    #enables/disables broadcasting the ssid
    ignore_broadcast_ssid=0
    # Needed for Windows clients
    eapol_key_index_workaround=0

    And don't forget to set this in /etc/defaults/hostapd:

    DAEMON_CONF="/etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf"
    I couldn't get dnsmasq or isc-dhcp-server to work consistently, though.  Turns out that 'netstat -nlp' showed udhcpd was binding to 0.0.0.0 on port 67 (which is a bug, since it ignores the "interface" option), so the other dhcp servers can't start.

    Hint: /var/log/daemon.log is where a lot of the error messages show up.

    I fixed that with 'mv /usr/sbin/udhcpd /usr/sbin/udhcpd.disabled', although it would probably have been better to 'apt-get purge udhcpd'.

    Here's my /etc/dnsmasq.conf:

    interface=usb0
    dhcp-range=192.168.7.1,192.168.7.1,4h

    interface=wlan0

    dhcp-range=192.168.4.2,192.168.4.10,4h

    And I also added this to /etc/network/interfaces:
    auto wlan0
    iface wlan0 inet static
        address 192.168.4.1
        netmask 255.255.255.0
        network 192.168.4.0
        gateway 192.168.4.1

    That seems to do it, except that I have to "ifup wlan0" after startup on my BeagleBone Green.  The Black doesn't seem to need that for some reason I haven't figured out yet.

    0 0
  • 01/26/16--18:07: BeagleBone DMA notes
  • I've been transferring data between the BeagleBone's PRUs and main memory.  If I use the PRU's SBBO instruction to store a range of PRU registers to main (DDR) memory, I find that I get around 600MB/s -- not bad!

    But surprisingly, when I try to read that data back, the main CPU seems to go much slower.

    I wrote some sample code for the main CPU to sum up all the bytes in a big (many MB) ordinary buffer.  I got ~300MB/sec.  Using the LDM instruction I got that up to 600MB/sec and in one case over 1GB/sec.  So in general the main CPU seems to have no trouble accessing main memory.

    But when I run the same code on the buffer allocated by the uio_pruss kernel module, I get only about a tenth of that: 30MB/s, or closer to to 40MB/s when using LDM.

    Kumar Abhishek from the BeagleLogic project helped me understand what was going on.  The uio_pruss module allocates that buffer using dma_alloc_coherent(), which is the standard way that linux kernel modules talk to DMA-based peripherals when they need to exchange smallish amounts of data quickly.  It tells the kernel that somebody else is going to be writing to main memory via DMA, so for this block of data, make sure we bypass the cache for every single memory access.

    For larger blocks of data travelling in one direction, CPU -> peripheral or peripheral <- CPU, the Dynamic DMA mapping Guide describes that the standard approach is to kmalloc() the memory in the kernel module, then use functions like dma_map_single(), dma_unmap_single(), dma_sync_single_for_cpu(), dma_sync_single_for_device() to make sure entire buffers are safe for access by the peripheral or CPU.

    That way, rather than every memory access having to bypass the cache, the kernel can make sure it's safe for the CPU to access everything in the block now that the peripheral is done with it, or vice versa.

    Unfortunately, though, on the ARM A8 CPU in the beaglebone, making sure a buffer doesn't already have stale data in the cache (which can happen unexpectedly due to things like speculative preloading) requires the kernel to walk cache line by cache line through the entire buffer, taking longer than the memory transfer it's preparing for!

    Kumar reports that he gets upward of 200MB/sec using this approach, dominated by the dma_* kernel calls.  I tried it myself with a simple kernel module and got a bit over 100MB/sec, so it seems plausible to me.

    This thread, "dma_sync_single_for_cpu takes a really long time", is worth reading all the way through.

    The only other way I can think of to get faster CPU access to big chunks of data from the PRUs is to tell the L1 and L2 caches to flush themselves, then access the data without calling the dma_sync_* functions at all.  The danger there is that it's very much tied to the specific CPU architecture and is very much not the recommended approach, so nobody's going to sympathize if you get corrupt data, and the only way to know if you've done it right is to try to test all the edge cases you can think of.

    0 0

    With the right USB OTG cables, I was able to connect my Nexus 5X to a beaglebone black and a beaglebone green.  I had to try several cables before the beaglebone would power up; I suspect it's the USB-C adapter that's the most problematic.  This is the USB-C OTG cable that worked.

    Once the board booted, I got a notification on my phone about the beaglebone USB storage device becoming available.  But I wanted to send data back and forth between an android app and a beaglebone process, so the network interface was the important thing to me.

    When I connect the beaglebone to my PC, it shows up as a USB ethernet adapter, and I can talk to it at 192.168.7.2.  I downloaded an android app called "Terminal Emulator", and when I ran "ifconfig" I could see that I had an eth0 device with IP 192.168.7.1.  But I couldn't connect to it.

    But if I turn on airplane mode, oddly, I can connect just fine by putting "192.168.7.2" in the address bar of the browser.  I haven't figured out yet whether it's possible to have LTE or Wifi on and still reach the beaglebone; perhaps it's just something to do with the IP addresses used by the Wifi or beaglebone.

    0 0

    By trial and error, I just figured out that 1 billion is the longest period you can set for (at least this particular) PWM channel.

    root@beaglebone:/sys/devices/ocp.3/pwm_test_P9_31.13# echo 1000000000 > period

    root@beaglebone:/sys/devices/ocp.3/pwm_test_P9_31.13# echo 1000000001 > period 
    bash: echo: write error: Numerical result out of range

    The value is in nanoseconds, so that gives a minimum frequency of 1Hz for PWM on beaglebone black.

    Also note that it won't let you set the period lower than the duty cycle setting (which we should really call the pulse width instead):

    root@beaglebone:/sys/devices/ocp.3/pwm_test_P9_31.13# echo 2000 > duty
    root@beaglebone:/sys/devices/ocp.3/pwm_test_P9_31.13# echo 1000 > period 
    bash: echo: write error: Invalid argument
    root@beaglebone:/sys/devices/ocp.3/pwm_test_P9_31.13# echo 500 > duty
    root@beaglebone:/sys/devices/ocp.3/pwm_test_P9_31.13# echo 1000 > period 


    0 0
  • 06/09/16--18:02: Adafruit_BBIO bugs
  • First bug was mine.  I was doing "import Adafruit_BBIO as GPIO" instead of "import Adafruit_BBIO.GPIO as GPIO".  That gave this error once I started trying to use it:

    $ ./test.py
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File "./test.py", line 5, in <module>
        GPIO.setup("P9_11", GPIO.OUT)
    AttributeError: 'module' object has no attribute 'setup'


    The other bug was theirs: the code appeared to be working, but the GPIO pins weren't changing state.  Turns out there's no error checking in the library (ugh).  So it wasn't giving any errors when I failed to run the script as root.

    0 0

    Working with the Beaglebone can be really frustrating.  There are a lot of buggy libraries and incomplete docs, and the Sitara chip is really complicated, overloading its pins to do lots of different things.

    Today I needed 8 GPIO pins for a test harness.  I looked at the diagrams for the P8 and P9 headers and picked some likely-looking pins.  I used the Adafruit_BBIO python library and set them up as outputs, then toggled them and watched with the meter.  Three of them didn't work.

    So I changed my script to try to toggle *all* the pins on P9, even the ground and VCC pins.  Of course this doesn't bother Adafruit_BBIO because it has no error checking (ugh).  Here are the pins that worked as GPIO outputs.

    Note that this is from my Beaglebone *Green*.  On the Beaglebone *Black* you'd probably need to disable HDMI for some of these pins to work.

    Beware: I repeated this test several times across reboot and power down, and some of the pins worked the second or third time that didn't work the first.  It's possible that's sloppiness on my part, but my intuition says no, and that Adafruit_BBIO isn't initializing the pins correctly, so there's some random chance at play.  The best reference I've found so far in how stuff actually works is "Exploring Beaglebone", which is unfortunately a non-free book, but very well written.

    P8_7
    P8_8
    P8_9
    P8_10
    P8_11
    P8_12
    P8_13
    P8_14
    P8_15
    P8_16
    P8_17
    P8_18
    P8_19
    P8_26
    P8_27
    P8_28
    P8_29
    P8_30
    P8_31
    P8_32
    P8_33
    P8_34
    P8_35
    P8_36
    P8_37
    P8_38
    P8_39
    P8_40
    P8_41
    P8_42
    P8_43
    P8_44
    P8_45

    P9_11
    P9_12
    P9_13
    P9_14
    P9_15
    P9_16
    P9_23
    P9_24
    P9_25
    P9_26
    P9_27
    P9_28
    P9_29
    P9_30
    P9_31
    P9_41
    P9_42



    0 0

    Seems like every time I try to use the Xadow board, I have to spend hours getting it to program via the Arduino IDE.  This time, the solution seems to have been putting this in a file called /etc/udev/rules.d/78-xadow.rules and then rebooting:

    ATTR{idVendor}=="2886",  ENV{ID_MM_DEVICE_IGNORE}="1"